Welcome one and all to another episode of “Breaking the Barrier!!!”
Today we handling an awesome subject that everyone can use.
“Santa Clause is coming to town!”
English : Santa Clause is Coming to Town!
Portuguese : O Papai Noel está chegando!
Afrikaans : Kersfees Vader kom dorp toe!
History of Santa Clause
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle and simply “Santa“, is a mythical figure with legendary, historical and folkloric origins who, in many Western cultures, is said to bring gifts to the homes of the good children on December 24, the night before Christmas. However, in some European countries children receive their presents on St. Nicholas’ Day, December 6. The modern figure of Santa Claus is derived from the Dutch figure of Sinterklaas, which, in turn, has part of its basis in hagiographical tales concerning the historical figure of Christian bishop and gift-giver Saint Nicholas. During the Christianization of Germanic Europe, this figure may have absorbed elements of the god Odin, who was associated with the Germanic pagan midwinter event of Yule and led the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession through the sky. Over time, traits of this character and the British folklore character Father Christmas merged to form the modern Santa Claus known today.
Santa Claus is generally depicted as a portly, joyous, white-bearded man—sometimes with spectacles—wearing a red coat with white collar and cuffs, white-cuffed red trousers, and black leather belt and boots and carries a bag full of gifts for children. Images of him rarely have a beard with no moustache. This image became popular in the United States and Canada in the 19th century due to the significant influence of Clement Clarke Moore‘s 1823 poem “A Visit From St. Nicholas” and of caricaturist and political cartoonist Thomas Nast. This image has been maintained and reinforced through song, radio, television, children’s books and films.
Since the 20th century, in an idea popularized by the 1934 song “Santa Claus Is Coming to Town“, Santa Claus has been believed to make a list of children throughout the world, categorizing them according to their behavior (“naughty” or “nice”) and to deliver presents, including toys, and candy to all of the well-behaved children in the world, and sometimes coal to the naughty children, on the single night of Christmas Eve. He accomplishes this feat with the aid of the elves who make the toys in the workshop and the reindeer who pull his sleigh.
Source = Wikipedia
- Santa Claus visits with pets in ‘Santa Paws’ event (kcci.com)
- The History of Santa Claus (costumediscounters.com)
- 16 Santa Claus (creativelybecomeindifferent.wordpress.com)
- The Most Awesomely Terrible Ways to Tell Kids There’s No Santa Claus (toplessrobot.com)
- Santa Suits Throughout Time (costumediscounters.com)
- St. Nicks learn tricks of trade at Santa School (bigstory.ap.org)
- Scientifically Accurate Santa Claus by ADHD (laughingsquid.com)
- Colleton River Plantation Sets Record Raising $43K Through Operation Santa Claus (prweb.com)
Hey there all and welcome back to more AWESOME facts we found about language.
Today we focussing on SPANISH!
1. With 329 million native speakers, Spanish ranks as the world’s No. 2 language in terms of how many people speak it as their first language. It is slightly ahead of English (328 million) but far behind Chinese (1.2 billion). (Source: Ethnologue)
2. Spanish has at least 3 million native speakers in each of 44 countries, making it the fourth mostly geographically widely spoken language behind English (112 countries), French (60) and Arabic (57). (Source: Ethnologue)
3. Spanish is part of the Indo-European family of languages, which are spoken by more than a third of the world’s population. Other Indo-European languages include English, French, German, the Scandinavian languages, the Slavic languages and many of the languages of India. Spanish can be classified further as a Romance language, a group that includes French, Portuguese, Italian, Catalan and Romanian.
4. Although there is no clear boundary defining when the Latin of what is now the north-central area of Spain became Spanish, it is safe to say that the language of the Castile region became a distinct language in part because of efforts by King Alfonso in the 13th century to standardize the language for official use. By the time Columbus came to the Western Hemisphere in 1492, Spanish had reached the point where the language as spoken and written would be easily understandable today.
5. To the people who speak it, Spanish is sometimes called español and sometimes castellano(the Spanish equivalent of “Castilian”). The labels used vary from region to region and sometimes according to political viewpoint. (See also the article on Spanish vs. Castilian.)
6. Spanish is one of the world’s most phonetic languages. If you know how a word is spelled, you can almost always know how it is pronounced (although the reverse isn’t true). The main exception is recent words of foreign origin, which usually retain their original spelling.
7. The Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española), created in the 18th century, is widely considered the arbiter of what is considered standard Spanish. It produces authoritative dictionaries and grammar guides. Although its decisions do not have the force of law, they are widely followed in both Spain and Latin America. Among the language reforms promoted by the Academy have been the use of the inverted question mark and exclamation point (¿ and¡). Although they have been used by people who speak some of the non-Spanish languages of Spain, they are otherwise unique to the Spanish language. Similarly unique to Spanish and a few local languages that have copied it is the ñ, which became standardized around the 14th century.
8. Although Spanish originated on the Iberian Peninsula as a descendant of Latin, today it is has far more speakers in Latin America, having been brought to the New World by Spanish colonization. Although there are minor differences in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation between the Spanish of Spain and the Spanish of Latin America, the differences are not so great as to prevent easy communication.
9. After Latin, the language that has had the biggest influence on Spanish is Arabic. Today, the foreign language exerting the most influence is English, and Spanish has adopted hundreds of English words related to technology and culture.
10. Spanish and English share much of their vocabulary through cognates, as both languages derive many of their words from Latin and Arabic. The biggest differences in the grammar of the two languages include Spanish’s use of gender, a more extensive verb conjugation and the widespread use of the subjunctive mood.
- Why Study GCSE Latin ? (ool.co.uk)
- How To Pick Up Women In Spanish (mademan.com)
- Learn The Challenges Of Spanish And French Language Translation (starnesdorothy618.wordpress.com)
- Philippines (en.wikipedia.org)
- Best Way To Learn Spanish (mademan.com)
Man who provided sign language interpretation on stage for Nelson Mandela’s memorial service, attended by scores of heads of state, was simply “making childish hand gestures” for hours
6:27PM GMT 11 Dec 2013
A mystery South African man who acted as a sign-language interpreter at Nelson Mandela’s memorial service was a “fraud” who simply made “childish hand gestures” for hours as he stood on stage.
Deaf groups say the man, who has not yet been identified, made no sense in any language to those relying on him around the world, and did not seem to know the recognised signs for South Africa, Mr Mandela’s clan name Madiba, President Jacob Zuma or former President Thabo Mbeki.
As a result, they say, he had the effect of marginalising the deaf community, which was “contrary to everything Mandela fought for”.
The embarrassing revelation also raises questions about the security at the landmark event, which was attended by 91 heads of state and government including Barack Obama and David Cameron.
President Barack Obama stands next to the sign language interpreter after making his speech (AP)
The latest embarrassment was compounded by the news that Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu’s house in Cape Town was burgled as he spoke at the event.
David Buxton, the CEO of the British Deaf Association, called on the South African authorities to “name and shame” the man who, he said, had acted in a way that was “disrespectful and hurtful” to deaf people around the world.
While some South Africans took to Twitter to claim the man had been signing in a South African language such as Xhosa or Zulu, Mr Buxton said he was purely making “childish hand gestures and clapping, it was as if he had never learn a word of sign language in his life”.
“It was hours of complete nonsense,” he said. “He is clearly a fraud who wanted to stand on stage with big and important people. It’s quite audacious if you think about it,” he said.
“It is incredibly disrespectful and hurtful to the deaf community.”
Bencie Woll, Professor of Sign Language and Deaf Studies at the University College London
Mr Buxton said the man had provided sign language for a speech for Mr Zuma at a military event last year. At that appearance, a deaf person in the audience videotaped the event and gave it to the federation for the deaf, which analysed the video, prepared a report about it and submitted a formal complaint to the African National Congress (ANC).
Sign language experts in South Africa said that all of the country’s 11 official languages were covered by the same signs, and they saw none of them used, nor any of the facial gestures that usually feature.
Ingrid Parkin, principal of the St Vincent School for the Deaf in Johannesburg, said she had received complaints from deaf people from around the world about the “gibberish” interpretation.
“This man himself knows he cannot sign and he had the guts to stand on an international stage and do that,” she said.
Footage from a South African news channel how their sign language interpreter’s translation differed from that being provided by the on stage signer
Martie Miranda, a sign language instructor at the University of the Free State, said a simple phone call to DeafSA would have prevented the spectacle, which marginalised deaf viewers and was “contrary to everything Mandela fought for”.
It remains unclear whether the man was sourced by the government which organised the event, the ruling ANC or the national broadcaster the SABC.
The government said it was still looking into how the man was recruited. The SABC could not be reached for comment.
The ANC confirmed it had used him “as a volunteer” at several events previously, including its centenary celebrations in Bloemfontein last year.
“We’ve never had any complaints before,” spokesman Keith Khoza said.
But Wilma Newhoudt-Druchen, an ANC MP and the vice-chairperson of the Deaf Federation of SA (DeafSA), told the City Press newspaper that the DeafSA had submitted a report about the man to the party in 2012 but received no response.
“When a deaf person complains, nobody listens,” said Newhoudt-Druchen.
Source & Credits = The Telegraph
- Interpreter at Mandela memorial defends work (kcci.com)
- Outcry over Mandela service interpreter (kcci.com)
- Sign language translator at Nelson Mandela’s memorial was a FAKE! (ezasemzansi.wordpress.com)
- Nelson Mandela’s funeral: Interpreter’s ‘gibberish was hurtful to world’s deaf’ (dnaindia.com)
- Mandela memorial interpreter asks for forgiveness (kcci.com)
- ‘Fake’ Mandela Sign Language Interpreter Who Stood Just Inches From Obama Reportedly Faced Murder, Rape & Kidnapping Charges (theblaze.com)
10 lessons from my first year as a full-time freelance translator
- You will need at least three months’ saving put aside. I cannot stress enough how important it is to prepare yourself financially. Save, save, save. And when you think you’ve saved enough, save some more. As you work to build up your client base, money will come in very slowly indeed. Trust me. It took a good three months for the trickle of money to turn into a steady(ish!) flow.
- There will be days when you will not make a penny. Don’t panic. You will learn very quickly that feast and famine is the name of the freelance translator’s game. The important thing is to be prepared and use your time wisely. In a quiet period, spend your time tackling activities that don’t generate income, such as admin and glossary and TM maintenance.
- Set a realistic rate. Don’t under or over-value your services.It is important to get a good idea of appropriate rates for the translation market in which you work before you set yours. Once set, it will be very difficult to change. If you set your rate too low, you could end up working all hours of the day for very little money. If you set your rate too high, you risk losing the client to a less expensive option. Think it through carefully and know your value. This is a business, not a hobby.
- Don’t assume that you will spend all day, every day translating. This is not the reality of freelance translation. You are the translation, IT, marketing, admin and accounts departments all rolled into one. Be prepared to spend time on all these tasks.
- Be open to offering different types of services. The more you offer, the easier it will be for you to find clients. Aside from translation, my first year as a freelancer has involved editing, proofreading, quality assurance checking, localisation, glossary creation, alignment, translation memory updates and brand name analysis. Utilise your language skills and maximise your income. The (translation) world is your oyster!
- Be prepared to work hard. Anyone who thinks freelance translators get up whenever they like and sit around in their pyjamas all day is sadly mistaken. I get up at the crack of dawn and often work until late evening (weekends included). Self-motivation is key. Be prepared to work long hours and put your all into every project you take on. It will pay off.
- Network with fellow freelance translators. Get in touch with people who understand your career. The first year is the hardest, you’ll need all the support you can get. Network with other freelance translators and swap stories. It’s a great source of mutual encouragement.
- Be prepared for your working hours to change at a moment’s notice. From last minute client changes to the source file, to a super urgent translation, your working hours can change without warning. You may decide to accept such requests or you may decide to turn them down. Either way, you’re in control!
- Don’t shy away from a challenging project (within reason).Allow yourself plenty of extra time to do thorough research into the subject matter and deal with the inevitable tricky terms that arise. When you complete the project you’ll be far more knowledgeable on the subject and you’ll be that much better for having done it. Don’t be afraid to stretch yourself. Equally…
- Don’t be afraid to say no. Sometimes you just know the project isn’t for you but you’re reluctant to turn it down. Who knows when the next one will come along, right? Wrong. There’s always another project around the corner. Don’t panic. Either offer the client a solution by referring them to someone else (this is where the networking comes in), or just say no.
- 5 Tips for Becoming a Freelance Translator (sidrabaksh.wordpress.com)
- The Top Three Things I Wish Somebody Told Me When I First Started As a Freelance Translator (atasavvynewcomer.org)
- Friday Five Interview with Sebastian St. John-Clarke (hiscox.co.uk)
- What is Translation Memory? And Why Should my Business Use It? (business2community.com)
- A Few Important Advantages of Being a Freelance Translator (patenttranslator.wordpress.com)
Welcome back again to our favourite comic found on the net about translation. So without delay:
Source = Mox
Hey there and welcome to another edition of
“BREAKING THE BARRIER!!!!”
Today we looking at one of our upcoming holiday words that always get forgotten.
English – Happy New Year
Portuguese – Feliz ano novo
Afrikaans – Gelukkige Nuwe Jaar
new year (ˈnu ˈyɪər, ˈnyu for 1; ˌyɪər for 2 )
The Romans dedicated New Year’s Day to Janus, the god of gates, doors, and beginnings for whom the first month of the year (January) is also named. After Julius Caesar reformed the calendar in 46 BC and was subsequently murdered, the Roman Senate voted to deify him on the 1st January 42 BC in honor of his life and his institution of the new rationalized calendar. The month originally owes its name to the deity Janus, who had two faces, one looking forward and the other looking backward. This suggests that New Year’s celebrations are founded on pagan traditions. Some have suggested this occurred in 153 BC, when it was stipulated that the two annual consuls (after whose names the years were identified) entered into office on that day, though no consensus exists on the matter. Dates in March, coinciding with the spring equinox, or commemorating the Annunciation of Jesus, along with a variety of Christian feast dates were used throughout the Middle Ages, though calendars often continued to display the months in columns running from January to December.
Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts at the New Year. This was a pagan custom deplored by Saint Eligius (died 659 or 660), who warned the Flemings and Dutchmen, “(Do not) make vetulas, [little figures of the Old Woman], little deer or iotticos or set tables [for the house-elf, compare Puck] at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks [another Yule custom].” The quote is from the vita of Eligius written by his companion, Ouen.
Most countries in Western Europe officially adopted January 1 as New Year’s Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian calendar. In England, until the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Feast of the Annunciation on March 25, also called “Lady Day“. The March 25 date was known as Annunciation Style; the January 1 date was known as Circumcision Style, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, considered to be the eighth day of Christ’s life, counting from December 25 when his birth is celebrated. This day was christened as the beginning of the New Year by Pope Gregory as he designed the Liturgical Calendar.
- Thanksgivukkah: Why Hanukkah and Thanksgiving Overlap This Year (livescience.com)
- How do Japanese celebrate holidays? (discoverjapannow.wordpress.com)
- Months of the Year (ladymahoganyrose.wordpress.com)
- Paul Brandeis Raushenbush: Happy Holidays vs. Merry Christmas: The Last Thing That Ever Needs To Be Said About It (huffingtonpost.com)
- 431 Years Ago, There Was no October 7th! (crackedhistory.com)